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Brown rice is the whole rice grain with its outer husk removed. It is considered a "complete" grain. There are different types of brown rice: regular, parboiled, and instant.
Instant brown rice (also called quick-cooking) is ready the fastest - usually in about 10 minutes (five minutes cook time plus five minutes resting time). Parboiled rice also has a reduced cooking time but it takes about 25 minutes. The rice still has the bran and germ like regular brown rice but it has been steamed to speed up the cooking time. Regular brown rice is a very long cooking rice (but not as long as say, wild rice). It usually requires about 45 minutes cooking time to become tender.
There are different length grains just like with white rice: long, medium, and short-grain. The biggest difference with cooking the different length grains is the amount of water called for. Keep that in mind if you are substituting one type for the other in a recipe.
Brown rice has a nuttier texture and chewier texture than white rice. It is also considered healthier. Because it still has the bran coating it doesn't have as long of a shelf-life as white rice so only purchase what you will use in 6 months or so.
In many recipes you can substitute brown rice for white without a noticeable difference (again, just keep the liquid amounts in mind). I often will use brown rice in a recipe, simply adjusting for the necessary liquids.